The aten itself is shown as a sundisc, its rays ending with human hands. They gleefully pointed out that moses did not originate the concept of monotheism. Polytheism isnt more peaceful but the fights are smaller. There are however several problems with this theory. The discussion, however, is an ongoing one and is influenced by debates on the. Some have toyed with the idea that either moses influenced akhenaten or vice versa.
A traditional egyptian in that period would kept the presence of the deity in a divine votive ark. Did the monotheism of egyptian pharaoh akhenaten influence moses. Akhenatens artistic legacy, however, survived to influence the work of future craftsmen. If you believe that the biblical account is historically meaningful, then it might be supposed that an egyptian or egyptianraised moses led the hebrews or similar group out of egyp. A natural leader, he decides not to flee alone, but to create a new nation, become it leader, and install the religion of aton with it. Jan 02, 2020 the hebrews liked many aspects of atenism and therefore incorporated atenism into their own religious systems upon leaving egypt.
Could it be that the jews learned monotheism from akhenaten. Most who believe that moses was a real person begin with the assumption that the biblical story contains truth. The secret history of egypt at the time of the exodus. Was akhenaten, the egyptian pharaoh who instituted monotheistic worship in his kingdom, the inadvertent founder of judaism and christianity. Sep 28, 2016 the theory advanced by campbell and others following sigmund freud s moses and monotheism in this is that moses was a priest of akhenaten who led likeminded followers out of egypt after akhenaten s death when his son, tutankhamun c. Moses and akhenaten one and the same person graham hancock. Aug 18, 2018 after akhenaten s demise there was going to be a brutal purge of anyone related to atenism. Therefore, the possibility that his son might have been influenced by this to move toward a kind of monotheism, althoug it is not terrifically likely, it is a possibility that deserves mention. Robin ngo april 15, 2020 87 comments 31450 views share.
Dna analysis has determined that the man buried in kv55 is the father of king tutankhamun. This can be illustrated by the case of the pharaoh akhenaten 5236 b. The highranking abdiel, who has a semitic name, served as a vizier to two pharaohs. Do you think that akhenatons monotheism influenced later forms of monotheism that emerged. Apr 15, 2020 did his monotheism later influence mosesand the birth of israelite monotheism. Indeed, sigmund freud in his book moses and monotheism 1939 opined. In the bar article the monotheism of the heretic pharaoh, donald b. Although akhenatens religion did center on one god, it was. His odd appearance in representations that he commissioned and his preoccupation with worshiping the sundisc, or aten, have stimulated a vast amount of academic discussion and controversy for more than a century. Argues that the origins of monotheism predates moses and hebrew. Was the biblical moses the same person as the pharoah akhenaten. There is a tradition of considering moses as an egyptian rather than a hebrew, which freud also did in moses and monotheism, not as implausible as it might sound to those familiar only with the traditional story. It is not inconceivable to most people to understand that every civilization on earth at this time actually devolved from the ancient sumerians, this was the place in which people branched out. In his last book moses and monotheism, published in 1939, freud argued that biblical moses was an official in the court of akhenaten, and an adherent of the aten religion.
Several decades ago, egyptologist alain zivie excavated a tomb in saqqara, egypt. He was well more similar to a traditional high priest like thutmose. One is associated with moses, the bible and ancient israels faith, which is the. Krauss undoubtedly has a point about akhenatens polytheism, but it should be observed that it was not the proponents of christianity who made the comparisons about monotheism. We can assume that even if the pharaoh of the exodus did not accept monotheism, he was significantly impacted by what happened with the jews. Akhenatens attempts to radically reform ancient egyptian religion was frowned upon by many and he soon fell out of favour, hence the short duration of his reign as pharaoh. Akhenaten has been described as a visionary who cut through the formality of egyptian religion to establish a connection with one god, the aten. Discovering secret passageways and hidden staircases while reinforcing collapsing chambers, he and his team carefully uncovered the tomb level by leveluntil they came face to face with the tombs owner himself. Pdf akhenatens monotheism and its relationship with ancient.
Relief showing akhenaten and his familythis relief was discovered within the royal tomb at tell elamarna, it depicts the king and queen offering lotus flowers to the god aten. Akhenaten and monotheism in egypt flashcards quizlet. Monotheism allowed a state or culture to unify to a greater degree. I shall make akhetaten for the aten, my father, in this place. How does the monotheism of the hebrews differ from that of. The egyptian king who believed in one god before the. Moses, akhenaten and the troubled birth of monotheism online. I started this adventure as a simple one post blog. The familiar biblical story self describes moses as growing up as an egyptian prince, and moses is an egyptian. They tried to make the hebrews stop practicing their religion. However, if we use my date, then akhenatens father or grandfather had experienced the power of jehovah directly in the plagues and the destruction of his army in the red sea. Then the pharaoh addressed his assembled courtiers. Egypt cult of the sun god and akhenatens monotheism.
Akhenatens son, tutankhaten, restored the disgraced amun as king of the gods, and he renamed himself tutankhamun to honor amun. Argues that akhenaten was the first monotheist in history. More likely, the hebrews just borrowed some religious ideas from the dominant culture at the time. It shocked many of its readers because of freud s suggestion that moses was actually born into an egyptian household, rather than being born as a hebrew slave and merely raised in the egyptian royal household as a ward as recounted in. Jun 15, 2019 the questions related to the biblical story of moses are complex and often do not have good answers.
Technically it is a dualistic religion, because the good deity ahura mazda is not omnipitent and it has an evil counterpart called angra mainyu. Did his monotheism later influence mosesand the birth of israelite monotheism. Akhenatens monotheism, not only influenced other religious beliefs, but also philosophy. Egyptian god, amonamen the invisible creative power. He created a revolution in religion, philosophy, and art that resulted in the introduction of the first. There akhenaten and his queen nefertiti made lavish offerings to.
In todays world, the preeminent issue surrounding akhenaten is whether or not his religion did or even could have. If doubt remains that akhenaten was a monotheist, consider some. For it to be so, the original moses wouldve had to have been an atenist, as proposed by freud, who led a troupe of hebrews out of egypt and managed to exert influence on their cult of yahweh. One of those is sigmund freud, in his book moses and monotheism he argues that moses was an atenist priest that was forced out of egypt after akhenatens death. First off, it suggests that prior to the time of akhenaten and his creation of the single allencompassing diety aten, the. Full text of moses and monotheism internet archive. In general, i would be very wary of claims that akhenatens religion was a significant influence on early judaism. Jun 24, 2017 when he lost his throne, akhenaten also lost his name and became known as moses. Much less would it have occurred to him to suppose that eternal salvation depended on the recognition of such a monad.
Amenres influence spread through all egypt, and for 600 years he had no. The son of akhenaten s daughter, known further as the son or moses, decided to flee egypt. I think theres a pretty good chance akhenaten had an influence on judaism, given the strong impact egypt had on its neighbors at the time. Jun 28, 2017 3,370 years ago give or take marks the birth moment of the first onegod faith. This is a strange question given that zoroastrianism doesnt even have true monotheism. Aten, a sun god represented as a solar disk with stylized rays of light emanating from it, became akhenaten s deity. There is, however, one very famous link that is often claimed between akhenaten and the old testament that seems to be worth investigation.
A number of critical scholars who place moses in the nineteenth dynasty during the reign of ramesses ii suggest that the israelites were monotheistic because they were influenced by the monotheism of akhenaten. What did king akhenaten contribute to egypt answers. Akhenaten s monotheism, in line with this view, was neither evangelical nor exclusive. Other divine entities are not simply taken on board and integrated into the pantheon. Was the heretic pharaoh akhenaton in fact the father of. Osmans book, moses and akhenaten provides a radical challenge to the longstanding beliefs concerning the origin of semitic religion and the puzzle of akhenatens deviation from ancient egyptian tradition. After the death of akhenaten, freuds theory goes, moses selected the israelite tribe living east of the nile delta to be his chosen people. It gives a state a larger mallet to swing in competition with other cultures. There were some claims, for example in the 1st 2 chapters of moses and monotheism by freud, that early judaism was basically a spinoff of akhenatens religion. Many have speculated the idea that akhenaten was the pioneer of a monotheistic religion that later became judaism. Fascinating question, but answers are at best speculative. It shocked many of its readers because of freuds suggestion that moses was actually born into an egyptian household, rather than being born as a hebrew slave and merely raised in the egyptian royal household as a ward as.
To some, akhenaten was the first monotheist who may have been inspired by joseph or moses. The history of monotheism eastern societies embrace monotheism more broadly, more strictly and earlier than their western counterparts e. He shows that even the ten commandments betray the direct influence of spell 125 in the egyptian book of the dead. Doc akhenatens impact on egyptian civilization sara. Sigmund freud himself mentioned in his book moses and monotheism, that moses himself had been an atenist priest who was forced to flee egypt with his followers shortly after arkhenatens death. According to the theory, the monotheism of judaism and later, christianity was copied from atenism. The name of this first recorded monotheist was not moses, but akhenaten formerly amenhotep iv. During my history of world religions class, there was a very peculiar topic brought up. It would never have occurred to an ancient egyptian to think of the supernatural as a monada unitary, intellectually superior emanation.
Why did an ancient egyptian king erase all gods but aten. Egypt during the new kingdom, the cult of the sun god ra became increasingly important until it evolved into the uncompromising monotheism of pharaoh akhenaten amenhotep iv, 6447 b. Presents original research on the controversial figure pharaoh akhenaten. The cult of the sundisk emerged from an iconoclastic war between the good god akhenaten. Since the rediscovery of the remains of tellelamarna in the 1870s and the unearthing of evidence of akhenaten s illfated religious revolution, the seemingly monotheistic nature of this cult of the aten has fascinated a culturally. Ancient egyptian religion and the monotheistic religion of moses in the glorious eighteenth dynasty, when egypt became for the first time a world power, a young pharaoh ascended the throne about 75 b. Did moses learn monotheism from akhenaten and akhenatens worship of aten.
Akhenaten s experience is identified as a theophany and is examined against other encounters with the divine found in ancient near eastern sources. The answer to that question depends on two main factors. Moses introduced monotheism to the jews and gave the jews the rite of circumcision, which was also a feature of egyptian religion. Akhenaten and the origins of monotheism oxford scholarship. Akhenaten is one of the most intriguing rulers of ancient egypt, and one of the most fascinating individuals from the ancient world. Still other scholars equate moses with akhenaten himself. In this book freud argues that what akhenaten was trying to achieve in ancient egypt, to promote monotheism, was successfully achieved by the biblical moses.
It failed, but the second attempt in israel ultimately gave birth to judaism. Less than 100 years after akhenaten s death, moses would be preaching monotheism on the bank of the nile river, to the israelis. More broadly, if israelite monotheism was formulated much later, perhaps in. Others see akhenaten as a practitioner of an aten monolatry,6 as he did not actively deny the existence of other gods. Akhenaten and monotheism the later part of akhenatens reign 4838 bce did akhenaten want to open up the principal religion of egypt to a wider community of worshipers. This image of the aten as an allpowerful, allloving, deity, supreme creator and sustainer of the universe, is thought to have had a potent influence on the later development of monotheistic religious faith. There was no queen akhenaten because akhentan was a man. Freud argued that moses had been an atenist priest forced to leave egypt with his followers after akhenatens death.
Akhenatens new program involved the worship of one god the sundisc, aten. How and why did judaism borrow monotheism from zoroastrianism. In freuds retelling of the events, moses led only his close followers into freedom during an unstable period in egyptian history after akhenatens death ca. Now, this assertion automatically suggests several telling things which contradict the basic understanding of the old testament. Others contend that he was born at memphis, where growing up he was influenced by the worship of the sun god ra. Most egyptologists do not consider his religion fully monotheistic, but rather monolatristic or henotheistic. Pdf akhenatens monotheism and its relationship with. If moses led israel out of egypt when he was 80 years old acts 7. Judaism is the 1st organized monotheistic religion, and its becoming one is associated with the exodus from egypt. I doubt the old testament accounts of moses and the exodus were meant to be taken as literal history. Redford, who excavated akhenaten s earliest temple at karnak in modern thebes, describes how akhenaten instituted worship of aten. Feb 23, 2016 this is a strange question given that zoroastrianism doesnt even have true monotheism.
Freud argues that moses was not hebrew as stated in the bible, but was actually born into ancient egyptian nobility and. Akhenaten and nefertiti the beautiful answers in genesis. Chapters 15 western civilization test flashcards quizlet. Akhenaten and moses pagine di archeologia cristiana. Did his monotheism later influence moses and the birth of israelite monotheism. Defying centuries of traditional worship of the egyptian pantheon, egyptian pharaoh akhenaten decreed during his reign in the mid14th.
Rejects the theory of any direct connection between moses and akhenaten s religion. Exploring the questions of whether atenism was monotheistic and whether it could have influenced hebrew monotheism, the book will also be of great interest to biblical scholars. Moses and akhenaten one and the same person graham. There akhenaten and his queen nefertiti made lavish offerings to the solar god aten. The hebrew religion was based on ethics, whereas the religion of akhenaten was not connected to human behavior. In todays world, the preeminent issue surrounding akhenaten is whether or not his religion didor even could have. The followers of akhenaten s religion are persecuted after akhenaten s death. Akhenaten, an egyptian, is perhaps the 1st monotheist in history. Atenism the birth of monotheistic religions in ancient egypt around. Akhenaten also spelled echnaton, akhenaton, ikhnaton, and khuenaten was an ancient. According to freud, moses was egyptian and flourished during the reign of amenhotep iv later called akhenaton, who introduced monotheism as an unpopular and shortlived replacement for traditional egyptian religion.
Did judaism get the idea of monotheism from akhenaten. In the neverending search for a natural explanation for the origins of the judeochristian religion, skeptics have gone far afield looking for any person or idea they can point to and claim that the jews or christians borrowed from and we will look here at one of the most common claims, one that. It seems to be that wherever i look up akhenaten, he is readily ascribed to be the worlds first monotheist, thus superceding the israelites. Akhenaten monotheistic religion aton moses hebrew religion pharaoh egypt atenism. Moses was not a hebrew but an egyptian freud continued his argument and. He was the pharoah of egypt before his son tutankuhaumn king tut better known by the average american. Jun 10, 2015 in did akhenatens monotheism influence moses. Did akhenatens religion influence or somehow affect the growth of. The idea of a single god, once the radical belief of an isolated heretic, is now embraced by moslems, christians, and jews throughout the world. The story of moses is told in the biblical books of exodus, leviticus, deuteronomy, and numbers but he continues to be referenced throughout the bible and. Akhenaten influence on monotheismabrahamic faiths history. The idea of akhenaten as the pioneer of a monotheistic religion that later became judaism was promoted by sigmund freud in his book moses and monotheism and thereby entered popular consciousness. Why did an ancient egyptian king erase all gods but.
Akhenaten is the most mysterious and interesting of all the ancient egyptian pharaohs. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Moses and monotheism is a 1939 religious philosophy book by austrian psychoanalyst sigmund freud, consisting of three essays and expanding freuds work on psychoanalytic theory to generate hypotheses about historical events. He is claimed by the religions of judaism, christianity, islam and bahai as an important prophet of god and the founder of monotheistic belief. According to the cult, ra created himself from a primeval mound in the shape of a pyramid and then created all other gods.
Jun 06, 2012 during my history of world religions class, there was a very peculiar topic brought up. Akhenaten influence on monotheismabrahamic faiths there are several questions around this theme that i would like to know the historum members opinion. There are two mummified children found inside of tut s tomb, at least one might have survived childbirth but did not live past year one possible death of the first born. Akhenaten established the first known monotheistic religion, atenism, which was integrated into the three abrahamic religions. On this stela from elamarna, egyptian king akhenaten is seen with his wife nefertiti and their daughters bearing offerings to the sundisk aten.867 47 727 230 1353 1385 519 1154 796 130 1425 1266 1319 549 1560 1404 1219 853 916 255 780 992 741 425 573 970 1468 546 596 1297 958 1606 246 1563 1079 1020 436 32 79 1064 363 944 1475 826 989 1355 1329 1228 321 327